Organized Crime Monitor

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Organized Crime Monitor

The purpose of the Organized Crime Monitor is to optimize the use of knowledge gained during large-scale investigations to develop an insight into the nature of organized crime in the Netherlands.

Research method

The main sources of this ongoing research project are files of closed Dutch police investigations of criminal groups, often spanning a period of several years. Since 1996 up to now, we have analyzed systematically 150 large-scale investigations. Each case study always starts with structured interviews with police officers and/or public prosecutors. After these interviews we analyze and summarize the police files. Describing and analyzing these files, use is made of an extensive checklist which elaborates upon the following leading questions: What is the composition of the group and how do offenders cooperate? What kinds of illegal activities do they engage in and how do they operate? How do they interact with the opportunities and risks of their environment? What are the proceeds of the criminal activities and how do they spend these proceeds? Transcripts of wiretaps, and data obtained from police observations and interrogations of victims and offenders, often provide us with a detailed and interesting look into the social world of organized crime.
Following four data sweeps we now have collected a wide cross-section of 150 cases, not only about the various forms of organized crime and various forms of cooperation, but also set within a specific timeframe. In addition, use was made of expert interviews, information from other investigations, confidential reports, crime analyses and (scientific) literature.

External research reports
-----> Pathways into organized crime; criminal opportunities and adult-onset offending (thesis, 2013)

Other key publications in English

  • Leukfeldt E.R., E.W. Kruisbergen, E.R. Kleemans and R.A. Roks
    Organized Financial Cybercrime: Criminal Cooperation, Logistic Bottlenecks, and Money Flows
    In: The Palgrave Handbook of International Cybercrime and Cyberdeviance (ed. by T. Holt and A. Bossler)
    Cham, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019 (see: pdf)

  • Kruisbergen, E.W., E.R. Leukfeldt, E.R. Kleemans & R.A. Roks
    Money talks: Money Laundering Choices of Organized Crime Offenders in a Digital Age
    Journal of Crime and Justice, December 2019
  • Kruisbergen, E.W., E.R. Kleemans and R.F. Kouwenberg
    Explaining attrition: Investigating and confiscating the profits of organized crime
    European Journal of Criminology, first published on February 24, 2016 as doi:10.1177/1477370816633262

  • Kruisbergen, E.W., E.R. Kleemans and R.F. Kouwenberg
    Profitability, power, or proximity? Organized crime offenders investing their money in legal economy
    European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, vol. 21, 2015, nr. 2, pp. 237–256 (see: pdf)

  • Kleemans, E.R., E.W. Kruisbergen and R.F. Kouwenberg
    Women, brokerage and transnational organized crime; empirical results from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor
    Trends in Organized Crime, june 2013, pp. ?

  • Kleemans, E.R.
    Expanding the domain of human trafficking research: introduction to the special issue on human trafficking
    Trends in Organized Crime, Vol. 14, 2011, Sept., nr. 2-3, pp. 95-99

  • Laan, P.H. van der, M. Smit, Inge Busschers and P. Aarten
    Cross-border trafficking in human beings: prevention and intervention strategies for reducing sexual exploitation
    Campbell Collaboration, 2011
    (Campbell systematic reviews, 2011, nr. 9)

  • Smit, M.
    Trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation; the case of the Netherlands
    Trends in organized crime, Vol. 14, 2011, Sept., nr. 2-3, pp. 184-197

  • Verhoeven, M.A. and B. van Gestel
    Human Trafficking and criminal investigation strategies in the Amsterdam Red Light District
    Trends in Organized Crime, Vol. 14, 2011, Sept., nr. 2-3, pp. 148-164

  • Kleemans, E.R., M. Soudijn and A. Weenink
    Situational Crime Prevention and Cross-border Crime
    In: Bullock, K., Clarke, R.V. and Tilley, N. (eds.) - Sitiuational Prevention of Organised Crimes
    (Crime Science Series)
    Abingdon, Willan publishing, 2010, pp. 17-34

  • Koppen, V. van, C.J. de Poot, E.R. Kleemans and P. Nieuwbeerta
    Criminal Trajectories in Organized crime
    British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 50, 2010, nr. 1, pp. 102-123
    (See link at: More information)

  • Kleemans, E.R.
    Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking
    In: M. Tonry (ed.) - Oxford Handbook on Crime and Public Policy
    Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 409-427

  • Koppen, V. van, C.J. de Poot, E.R. Kleemans en P. Nieuwbeerta
    Late starters en volwassen daders; georganiseerde misdaad en justitiële voorgeschiedenissen
    Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, 51e jrg., 2009, nr. 1, pp. 3-20

  • Soudijn, M., and E.R. Kleemans
    Chinese Organized Crime and Situational Context: a Comparison of Human Smuggling and Synthetic Drugs Trafficking
    Crime, Law and Social Change, Vol. 52, 2009, nr. 5, pp. 457-474

  • Kleemans, E.R. and H.G. van de Bunt
    Organised Crime, Occupations and Opportunity
    Global Crime, vol. 9, 2008, nr. 3, pp. 185-197

  • Kleemans, E.R. and C.J. de Poot
    Criminal Careers in Organized Crime and Social Opportunity Structure
    European Journal of Criminology, vol. 5, 2008, no. 1, pag. 69-98

  • Kleemans, E.R. and C.J. de Poot
    Criminal careers in organized crime (summary)
    The Hague, WODC, 2007
    (Cahier, 2007-13)

  • Kleemans, E.R. Organized crime, transit crime, and racketeering
    In: M. Tonry and C. Bijleveld (eds.) - Crime and Justice in the Netherlands
    Chicago, University of Chicago Press
    Crime and Justice, A Review of Research, vol. 35, 2007, pag. 163-215. , 2007

  • Van de Bunt, H.G. and C. van der Schoot (eds.)
    Prevention of Organised Crime: A Situational Approach
    Cullompton, Willan Publishing, 2003/The Hague, BJU/WODC, 2003
    (Onderzoek en beleid, 215)

  • Kleemans, E.R. and H.G. van de Bunt
    The Social Embeddedness of Organized Crime
    Transnational Organized Crime, vol. 5, 1999, no. 2, pag. 19-36