Justitiële verkenningen, 2018, nr. 2 - Banishment and new forms of exclusion
For many ages banishment, a sanction involving a person’s geographical and social exclusion, served both to punish deviants and to monitor mobile newcomers. The practice of banishment is not only phenomenon from the past. In the past decades there has been an increase in modern forms of exclusion, which is reflected in the popularity of various types of banning orders. These measures are not only used to restrict certain individuals’ freedom of movement in public space, but also in semi public spaces like public transport, shops, soccer stadiums and bars and restaurants. These banning orders are often not imposed by a criminal court, but by administrative courts or private parties, whether or not in collaboration with the police. This special issue includes four contributions that deal with this phenomenon in more depth. The rest of the articles are dedicated to the history of banishment practices in Northwest Europe, to the expulsion of criminally convicted immigrants in the Netherlands, the position of stateless people in the Netherlands and to the Dutch Certificate of Good Conduct (VOG). The VOG is denied (for a certain period) to a substantial part of criminally convicted people, which appears to be a serious obstacle to finding a job after leaving prison.