At first sight

Constitutional and administrative law / Basic rights

At first sight

An exploration of facial recognition and privacy risks in horizontal relationships (full text only available in Dutch)


Facial recognition technology is used to recognize faces or facial features based on digital images (for example a photo or video). For some time, governments have deployed the technology on a limited scale for detection and security purposes but in recent years, it has also become available to businesses and citizens. This opens up a range of opportunities for commercial companies and individuals to identify, track and profile people.
This research is based on a broad literature study into automated facial recognition technology and privacy violations for which, in addition to academic literature, news reports, websites, blogs, press releases and brochures have been investigated.Two questions are central to this study:

  1. How is facial recognition technology used by Dutch citizens and companies and how can the use of facial recognition technologies by citizens and companies infringe the privacy of citizens (now and in five years)?
  2. How can privacy violations, both current and potential, be prevented or limited?

Publication data

Keymolen, E., Noorman, M., Sloot, B. van der, Cuijpers, C., Koops, B.-J., Zhao, B.
Universiteit van Tilburg - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), WODC
Place of publication:
Universiteit van Tilburg - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT)
Year of publication:

Order information

TILT - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society